孫子兵法 (中英對照)

The Art of War

 

孫武 By Sun Tzu

Translated by Lionel Giles

始計第一

Laying Plans

孫子曰:兵者,國之大事,死生之地,存亡之道,不可不察也。

Sun Tzu said: The art of war is of vital importance to the State. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected.

 

故經之以五事,校之以計,而索其情:一曰道,二曰天,三曰地,四曰將,五曰法。

The art of war, then, is governed by five constant factors, to be taken into account in one's deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field.

These are: (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth; (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline.

 

道者,令民於上同意,可與之死,可與之生,而不危也;

The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger.

 

天者,陰陽、寒暑、時制也;

Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, times and seasons.

 

地者,遠近、險易、廣狹、死生也;

Earth comprises distances, great and small; danger and security; open ground and narrow passes; the chances of life and death.

 

將者,智、信、仁、勇、嚴也;

The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, courage and strictness.

 

法者,曲制、官道、主用也。

By method and discipline are to be understood the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions, the graduations of rank among the officers, the maintenance of roads by which supplies may reach the army, and the control of military expenditure.

 

凡此五者,將莫不聞,知之者勝,不知之者不勝。

These five heads should be familiar to every general: he who knows them will be victorious; he who knows them not will fail.

 

故校之以計,而索其情,曰:主孰有道?

Therefore, in your deliberations, when seeking to determine the military conditions, let them be made the basis of a comparison, in this wise:--

 

將孰有能?天地孰得?法令孰行?兵孰強?士卒孰練?賞罰孰明?吾以此知勝負矣。

(1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the Moral law? (2) Which of the two generals has most ability? (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven and Earth? (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced? (5) Which army is stronger? (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained? (7) In which army is there the greater constancy both in reward and punishment?

By means of these seven considerations I can forecast victory or defeat.

 

將聽吾計,用之必勝,留之;將不聽吾計,用之必敗,去之。

The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts upon it, will conquer: let such a one be retained in command! The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it, will suffer defeat:--let such a one be dismissed!

 

計利以聽,乃為之勢,以佐其外。

While heading the profit of my counsel, avail yourself also of any helpful circumstances over and beyond the ordinary rules.

 

勢者,因利而制權也。

According as circumstances are favorable, one should modify one's plans.

 

兵者,詭道也。

All warfare is based on deception.

 

故能而示之不能,用而示之不用,近而示之遠,遠而示之近。

Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near.

 

利而誘之,亂而取之,

Hold out baits to entice the enemy. Feign disorder, and crush him.

 

實而備之,強而避之,

If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him. If he is in superior strength, evade him.

 

怒而撓之,卑而驕之,

If your opponent is of choleric temper, seek to irritate him. Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant.

 

佚而勞之,親而離之,

If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. If his forces are united, separate them.

 

攻其無備,出其不意。

Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected.

 

此兵家之勝,不可先傳也。

These military devices, leading to victory, must not be divulged beforehand.

 

夫未戰而廟算勝者,得算多也;未戰而廟算不勝者,得算少也。多算勝少算,而況於無算乎!吾以此觀之,勝負見矣。

Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple where the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.

 

 

作戰第二

II. Waging War

 

孫子曰:凡用兵之法,馳車千駟,革車千乘,帶甲十萬,千里饋糧。則內外之費,賓客之用,膠

漆之材,車甲之奉,日費千金,然後十萬之師舉矣。

Sun Tzu said: In the operations of war, where there are in the field a thousand swift chariots, as many heavy chariots, and a hundred thousand mail-clad soldiers, with provisions enough to carry them a thousand li, the expenditure at home and at the front, including entertainment of guests, small items such as glue and paint, and sums spent on chariots and armor, will reach the total of a thousand ounces of silver per day. Such is the cost of raising an army of 100,000 men.

 

其用戰也,勝久則鈍兵挫銳,攻城則力屈,

When you engage in actual fighting, if victory is long in coming, then men's weapons will grow dull and their ardor will be damped. If you lay siege to a town, you will exhaust your strength.

 

久暴師則國用不足。

Again, if the campaign is protracted, the resources of the State will not be equal to the strain.

 

夫鈍兵挫銳,屈力殫貨,則諸侯乘其弊而起,雖有智者不能善其後矣。

Now, when your weapons are dulled, your ardor damped, your strength exhausted and your treasure spent, other chieftains will spring up to take advantage of your extremity. Then no man, however wise, will be able to avert the consequences that must ensue.

 

故兵聞拙速,未睹巧之久也。

Thus, though we have heard of stupid haste in war, cleverness has never been seen associated with long delays.

 

夫兵久而國利者,未之有也。

There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare.

 

故不盡知用兵之害者,則不能盡知用兵之利也。

It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted with the evils of war that can thoroughly understand the profitable way of carrying it on.

 

善用兵者,役不再籍,糧不三載,

The skillful soldier does not raise a second levy, neither are his supply-wagons loaded more than twice.

 

取用於國,因糧於敵,故軍食可足也。

Bring war material with you from home, but forage on the enemy. Thus the army will have food enough for its needs.

 

國之貧于師者遠輸,遠輸則百姓貧;

Poverty of the State exchequer causes an army to be maintained by contributions from a distance. Contributing to maintain an army at a distance causes the people to be impoverished.

 

近師者貴賣,貴賣則百姓財竭,

On the other hand, the proximity of an army causes prices to go up; and high prices cause the people's substance to be drained away.

 

財竭則急於丘役。

When their substance is drained away, the peasantry will be afflicted by heavy exactions.

 

力屈中原、內虛于家,百姓之費,十去其七;公家之費,破軍罷馬,甲胄矢弓,戟盾矛櫓,丘牛大車,十去其六。

With this loss of substance and exhaustion of strength, the homes of the people will be stripped bare, and three-tenths of their income will be dissipated; while government expenses for broken chariots, worn-out horses, breast-plates and helmets, bows and arrows, spears and shields, protective mantles, draught-oxen and heavy wagons, will amount to four-tenths of its total revenue.

 

故智將務食於敵,食敵一鍾,當吾二十鍾;箕杆一石,當吾二十石。

Hence a wise general makes a point of foraging on the enemy. One cartload of the enemy's provisions is equivalent to twenty of one's own, and likewise a single picul of his provender is equivalent to twenty from one's own store.

 

故殺敵者,怒也;取敵之利者,貨也。

Now in order to kill the enemy, our men must be roused to anger; that there may be advantage from defeating the enemy, they must have their rewards.

 

車戰得車十乘以上,賞其先得者而更其旌旗。車雜而乘之,卒善而養之,是謂勝敵而益強。

Therefore in chariot fighting, when ten or more chariots have been taken, those should be rewarded who took the first. Our own flags should be substituted for those of the enemy, and the chariots mingled and used in conjunction with ours. The captured soldiers should be kindly treated and kept. This is called, using the conquered foe to augment one's own strength.

 

故兵貴勝,不貴久。

In war, then, let your great object be victory, not lengthy campaigns.

 

故知兵之將,民之司命。國家安危之主也。

Thus it may be known that the leader of armies is the arbiter of the people's fate, the man on whom it depends whether the nation shall be in peace or in peril.

 

【注:】忌:“忌”加“艸”頭。

 

 

謀攻第三

III. Attack by Stratagem

 

孫子曰:夫用兵之法,全國為上,破國次之;全軍為上,破軍次之;全旅為上,破旅次之;全卒為上,破卒次之;全伍為上,破伍次之。

Sun Tzu said: In the practical art of war, the best thing of all is to take the enemy's country whole and intact; to shatter and destroy it is not so good. So, too, it is better to recapture an army entire than to destroy it, to capture a regiment, a detachment or a company entire than to destroy them.

 

是故百戰百勝,非善之善也;不戰而屈人之兵,善之善者也。

Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy's resistance without fighting.

 

故上兵伐謀,其次伐交,其次伐兵,其下攻城。

Thus the highest form of generalship is to balk the enemy's plans; the next best is to prevent the junction of the enemy's forces; the next in order is to attack the enemy's army in the field; and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities.

 

攻城之法,為不得已。修櫓轒輼,具器械,三月而後成;距堙,又三月而後已。

The rule is, not to besiege walled cities if it can possibly be avoided. The preparation of mantlets, movable shelters, and various implements of war, will take up three whole months; and the piling up of mounds over against the walls will take three months more.

 

將不勝其忿而蟻附之,殺士卒三分之一,而城不拔者,此攻之災也。

The general, unable to control his irritation, will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants, with the result that one-third of his men are slain, while the town still remains untaken. Such are the disastrous effects of a siege.

 

故善用兵者,屈人之兵而非戰也,拔人之城而非攻也,毀人之國而非久也,

Therefore the skillful leader subdues the enemy's troops without any fighting; he captures their cities without laying siege to them; he overthrows their kingdom without lengthy operations in the field.

 

必以全爭於天下,故兵不頓而利可全,此謀攻之法也。

With his forces intact he will dispute the mastery of the Empire, and thus, without losing a man, his triumph will be complete. This is the method of attacking by stratagem.

 

故用兵之法,十則圍之,五則攻之,倍則分之,

It is the rule in war, if our forces are ten to the enemy's one, to surround him; if five to one, to attack him; if twice as numerous, to divide our army into two.

 

敵則能戰之,少則能逃之,不若則能避之。

If equally matched, we can offer battle; if slightly inferior in numbers, we can avoid the enemy; if quite unequal in every way, we can flee from him.

 

故小敵之堅,大敵之擒也。

Hence, though an obstinate fight may be made by a small force, in the end it must be captured by the larger force.

 

夫將者,國之輔也。輔周則國必強,輔隙則國必弱。

Now the general is the bulwark of the State; if the bulwark is complete at all points; the State will be strong; if the bulwark is defective, the State will be weak.

 

故君之所以患於軍者三:

There are three ways in which a ruler can bring misfortune upon his army:--

 

(1) 不知軍之不可以進而謂之進,不知軍之不可以退而謂之退,是謂縻軍;

(1) By commanding the army to advance or to retreat, being ignorant of the fact that it cannot obey. This is called hobbling the army.

 

(2) 不知三軍之事而同三軍之政,則軍士惑矣;

(2) By attempting to govern an army in the same way as he administers a kingdom, being ignorant of the conditions which obtain in an army. This causes restlessness in the soldier's minds.

 

(3)不知三軍之權而同三軍之任,則軍士疑矣。

(3) By employing the officers of his army without discrimination, through ignorance of the military principle of adaptation to circumstances. This shakes the confidence of the soldiers.

 

三軍既惑且疑,則諸侯之難至矣。是謂亂軍引勝。

But when the army is restless and distrustful, trouble is sure to come from the other feudal princes. This is simply bringing anarchy into the army, and flinging victory away.

 

故知勝有五:知可以戰與不可以戰者勝,識眾寡之用者勝,上下同欲者勝,以虞待不虞者勝,將能而君不禦者勝。此五者,知勝之道也。

Thus we may know that there are five essentials for victory: (1) He will win who knows when to fight and when not to fight. (2) He will win who knows how to handle both superior and inferior forces. (3) He will win whose army is animated by the same spirit throughout all its ranks. (4) He will win who, prepared himself, waits to take the enemy unprepared. (5) He will win who has military capacity and is not interfered with by the sovereign.

 

故曰:知己知彼,百戰不貽;不知彼而知己,一勝一負;不知彼不知己,每戰必敗。

Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle.

 

 【注:】①:[車賁]。②:"溫"字"水"旁換"車"旁。

 

 

軍形第四

IV. Tactical Dispositions

 

孫子曰:昔之善戰者,先為不可勝,以待敵之可勝。

Sun Tzu said: The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy.

 

不可勝在己,可勝在敵。

To secure ourselves against defeat lies in our own hands, but the opportunity of defeating the enemy is provided by the enemy himself.

 

故善戰者,能為不可勝,不能使敵之必可勝。

Thus the good fighter is able to secure himself against defeat, but cannot make certain of defeating the enemy.

 

故曰:勝可知,而不可為。

Hence the saying: One may know how to conquer without being able to do it.

 

不可勝者,守也;可勝者,攻也。

Security against defeat implies defensive tactics; ability to defeat the enemy means taking the offensive.

 

守則不足,攻則有餘。

Standing on the defensive indicates insufficient strength; attacking, a superabundance of strength.

 

善守者藏於九地之下,善攻者動於九天之上,故能自保而全勝也。

The general who is skilled in defense hides in the most secret recesses of the earth; he who is skilled in attack flashes forth from the topmost heights of heaven. Thus on the one hand we have ability to protect ourselves; on the other, a victory that is complete.

 

見勝不過眾人之所知,非善之善者也;

To see victory only when it is within the ken of the common herd is not the acme of excellence.

 

戰勝而天下曰善,非善之善者也。

Neither is it the acme of excellence if you fight and conquer and the whole Empire says, "Well done!"

 

故舉秋毫不為多力,見日月不為明目,聞雷霆不為聰耳。

To lift an autumn hair is no sign of great strength; to see the sun and moon is no sign of sharp sight; to hear the noise of thunder is no sign of a quick ear.

 

古之所謂善戰者,勝於易勝者也。

What the ancients called a clever fighter is one who not only wins, but excels in winning with ease.

 

故善戰者之勝也,無智名,無勇功,

Hence his victories bring him neither reputation for wisdom nor credit for courage.

 

故其戰勝不忒。不忒者,其所措勝,勝已敗者也。

He wins his battles by making no mistakes. Making no mistakes is what establishes the certainty of victory, for it means conquering an enemy that is already defeated.

 

故善戰者,立於不敗之地,而不失敵之敗也。

Hence the skillful fighter puts himself into a position which makes defeat impossible, and does not miss the moment for defeating the enemy.

 

是故勝兵先勝而後求戰,敗兵先戰而後求勝。

Thus it is that in war the victorious strategist only seeks battle after the victory has been won, whereas he who is destined to defeat first fights and afterwards looks for victory.

 

善用兵者,修道而保法,故能為勝敗之政。

The consummate leader cultivates the moral law, and strictly adheres to method and discipline; thus it is in his power to control success.

 

兵法:一曰度,二曰量,三曰數,四曰稱,五曰勝。

In respect of military method, we have, firstly, Measurement; secondly, Estimation of quantity; thirdly, Calculation; fourthly, Balancing of chances; fifthly, Victory.

 

地生度,度生量,量生數,數生稱,稱生勝。

Measurement owes its existence to Earth; Estimation of quantity to Measurement; Calculation to Estimation of quantity; Balancing of chances to Calculation; and Victory to Balancing of chances.

 

故勝兵若以鎰稱銖,敗兵若以銖稱鎰。

A victorious army opposed to a routed one, is as a pound's weight placed in the scale against a single grain.

 

稱勝者之戰民也,若決積水於千仞之溪者,形也。

The onrush of a conquering force is like the bursting of pent-up waters into a chasm a thousand fathoms deep.

 

 

兵勢第五

V. Energy

 

孫子曰:凡治眾如治寡,分數是也;

Sun Tzu said: The control of a large force is the same principle as the control of a few men: it is merely a question of dividing up their numbers.

 

鬥眾如鬥寡,形名是也;

Fighting with a large army under your command is nowise different from fighting with a small one: it is merely a question of instituting signs and signals.

 

三軍之眾,可使必受敵而無敗者,奇正是也;

To ensure that your whole host may withstand the brunt of the enemy's attack and remain unshaken-- this is effected by maneuvers direct and indirect.

 

兵之所加,如以碬投卵者,虛實是也。

That the impact of your army may be like a grindstone dashed against an egg--this is effected by the science of weak points and strong.

 

凡戰者,以正合,以奇勝。

In all fighting, the direct method may be used for joining battle, but indirect methods will be needed in order to secure victory.

 

故善出奇者,無窮如天地,不竭如江海。終而複始,日月是也。死而更生,四時是也。

Indirect tactics, efficiently applied, are inexhaustible as Heaven and Earth, unending as the flow of rivers and streams; like the sun and moon, they end but to begin anew; like the four seasons, they pass away to return once more.

 

聲不過五,五聲之變,不可勝聽也;

There are not more than five musical notes, yet the combinations of these five give rise to more melodies than can ever be heard.

 

色不過五,五色之變,不可勝觀也;

There are not more than five primary colors (blue, yellow, red, white, and black), yet in combination they produce more hues than can ever been seen.

 

味不過五,五味之變,不可勝嘗也;

There are not more than five cardinal tastes (sour, acrid, salt, sweet, bitter), yet combinations of them yield more flavors than can ever be tasted.

 

戰勢不過奇正,奇正之變,不可勝窮也。

In battle, there are not more than two methods of attack--the direct and the indirect; yet these two in combination give rise to an endless series of maneuvers.

 

奇正相生,如迴圈之無端,孰能窮之哉!

The direct and the indirect lead on to each other in turn. It is like moving in a circle--you never come to an end. Who can exhaust the possibilities of their combination?

 

激水之疾,至於漂石者,勢也;

The onset of troops is like the rush of a torrent which will even roll stones along in its course.

 

鷙鳥之疾,至於毀折者,節也。

The quality of decision is like the well-timed swoop of a falcon which enables it to strike and destroy its victim.

 

故善戰者,其勢險,其節短。

Therefore the good fighter will be terrible in his onset, and prompt in his decision.

 

勢如擴弩,節如發機。

Energy may be likened to the bending of a crossbow; decision, to the releasing of a trigger.

 

紛紛紜紜,鬥亂而不可亂;渾渾沌沌,形圓而不可敗。

Amid the turmoil and tumult of battle, there may be seeming disorder and yet no real disorder at all; amid confusion and chaos, your array may be without head or tail, yet it will be proof against defeat.

 

亂生於治,怯生於勇,弱生於強。

Simulated disorder postulates perfect discipline, simulated fear postulates courage; simulated weakness postulates strength.

 

治亂,數也;勇怯,勢也;強弱,形也。

Hiding order beneath the cloak of disorder is simply a question of subdivision; concealing courage under a show of timidity presupposes a fund of latent energy; masking strength with weakness is to be effected by tactical dispositions.

 

故善動敵者,形之,敵必從之;予之,敵必取之。

Thus one who is skillful at keeping the enemy on the move maintains deceitful appearances, according to which the enemy will act. He sacrifices something, that the enemy may snatch at it.

 

以利動之,以卒待之。

By holding out baits, he keeps him on the march; then with a body of picked men he lies in wait for him.

 

故善戰者,求之於勢,不責於人故能擇人而任勢。

The clever combatant looks to the effect of combined energy, and does not require too much from individuals. Hence his ability to pick out the right men and utilize combined energy.

 

任勢者,其戰人也,如轉木石。木石之性,安則靜,危則動,方則止,圓則行。

When he utilizes combined energy, his fighting men become as it were like unto rolling logs or stones. For it is the nature of a log or stone to remain motionless on level ground, and to move when on a slope; if four-cornered, to come to a standstill, but if round-shaped, to go rolling down.

 

故善戰人之勢,如轉圓石於千仞之山者,勢也。

Thus the energy developed by good fighting men is as the momentum of a round stone rolled down a mountain thousands o

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